The Exogenix reference panel contains data for over 100 ethnic groups spread across the planet.
Our computational methods can estimate your ancestry proximal to over 40 regions and regions within countries.
Determining Your Ancestry
When your DNA data file is uploaded, a comparison is done between the genetic markers in your DNA data and the genetic markers within the samples present in our reference panel. Populations with a close genetic distance between them are harder to distinguish than others, and this usually corresponds to geographical distance between groups. The reference populations are from publicly available data sets and private contributions to our data base from customers who have consented to be part of the reference panel. The reference panel has been grouped into genetic clusters and assigned regions of geographical origin.
Overlap occurs between populations and geographic distance increases the amount of genetic variation. Lower genetic variation is found between individuals in neighboring regions. Calculations to predict what amount of your DNA is from a distinct ancestral ethnic population. Your patterns of admixture are correlated to reference groups from certain geographical areas.
When studying this field, you may have come across the term SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism). This refers to a mutations of a single nucleotide base in a sequence of DNA. Ancestral Informative Markers are SNPs which exhibit differences between different populations. Groups of ancestral informative markers are used in admixture determination to estimate which populations you share the closest affinity to.
The following is a list of the groups represented within our database in accordance with their geographic region. For some groups which exhibit wide overlapping ranges, we have designated these populations under broad categories until the subgroups can be reliably distinguished.
However, if there is a broad designation, there may still be a skew exhibited towards a particular identifiable region. If this is the case, it will be displayed in the "Regional Signal" section of the results. It's our way of saying although a reliable percentage could not be assigned for this particular region, it appears that you may have ancestry in this area due to a correlation between your genetic markers and the markers of individuals present in our reference panel from this particular region.
For example, you may get 5% Broadly Nilotic within the ethnic percentage breakdown, but within the "Regional Signal" section, a signal may be displayed for Western Kenya since markers within your data slightly skew towards the model for the expected ancestry informative markers of this particular region. Similarly, you could get "Broadly Middle Eastern" or "Broadly Central European" and still get a "Regional Signal" for a specific country, or region within a country, within each of those respective regions.
How Accurate Are these Results?
It is always important to keep in mind that results are based on the correlation between your genetic markers and the genetic markers of data within our reference panel.
When an algorithm assigns you to a population, it is picking which population you are closest to. This does not always reflect your actual genetic history and is an approximation.
For example, Norwegians and Swedes share remarkably close DNA which may be hard to discern on the genetic level. If you are 100% Norwegian for 10 generations, you may receive a Swedish percentage since migration has occurred historically between both populations and you have ended up sharing close genetic markers with the Swedish samples within the reference panel.
Common ancestral components sometimes account for percentage matches to groups which users do not have any particular ancestry, such as West Asian components sometimes being common to both Eastern European, Northeast African, and South Asian populations.